Applied Superconductivity by Vernon Newhouse (Eds.)

By Vernon Newhouse (Eds.)

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In terms of the analog it is quite easy to visualize how irreversible 46 ARNOLD H. SILVER AND JAMES E. ZIMMERMAN transitions between states come about, and to visualize to some extent what actually happens during the transition. As we slowly increase θχ (the analog of the applied flux Φχ) by rotating the end of the torsion bar, the pendulum angle 0 also will rotate, but more slowly than θχ as potential energy is stored in the torsion bar. When the pendulum reaches some angle 0C between π/2 and π, it will spontaneously go over the top, and thereafter, in the absence of damping, will execute nonsinusoidal oscillations, as described by Shin and Schwartz (1966).

A consequence of the theory is that the power in the iVth harmonic of an iV-order oscillation should be equal to the power from the N = 1 Josephson oscillation, or ΡΝ,Ν = -Pi. It must be remembered that the detector frequency is fixed at ω0; hence the fundamental frequency ω# of the iV-order oscillation must be set so that the iVth harmonic falls at ωο, or ΝωΝ = ω0. We have experimentally confirmed the equality ΡΝ,Ν = Pi for N as large as 15. 1. 52/iV POINT CONTACT SECTION A FIG. 17b. 45 GHz using the resistive device of Fig.

Operation of practical devices (β ~ 1) We now consider the operation of practical devices. Instead of the Josephson relation i = i0 sin 0 we will now use the simpler periodic linear relation given by Eqs. (20) and (21). Although the formulation is not analytically precise, we are able to handle in a fairly quantitative way the important practical case where β is not small compared to 1, as was assumed in the preceding paragraphs. For β larger, but not much larger, than unity, 1. JOSEPHSON WEAK-LINK DEVICES 29 transitions between the quantum states of Fig.

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