By Mairi Blackings, Nigel Fabb
This grammar presents essentially the most targeted money owed to be had of the syntax of a Nilo-Saharan language. It totally describes a number of the strange features of Ma'di, together with the several observe orders linked to diverse tenses, the particle-based modal and concentration platforms, the entire diversity of adverbials, and the constitution and which means of the noun word. The grammar additionally describes the phonetics, phonology, morphology, and features of the lexicon of the language.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Ma’di
6. 2). 3. Floating tones Several grammatical morphemes are realised as floating tones. 1). 6. A low tone which comes at the end of a clause, possibly related to the specific determiner. 5). 5). 1). 1). 3). All floating tones are either high or low. We suspect that the phonological weakness of the mid tone, which is the most easily deleted and may be a default tone of some kind, rules it out as an independent morpheme. 4. Absence ofdownstep and downdrifi We have not found evidence that Ma'di shows either downstep or downdrift.
V] is unrestricted. Table 13. Labiovelar fricatives before front vowels f V τψ before -ATR front vowel [i], [ε] consonant is consonant is word-initial word-medial X ή 'fart discreetly' Vi'fling', a Vi 'jealousy' νε 'have dysentery' X X before +ATR front vowel [i], [e] consonant is consonant is word-initial word-medial fe 'run' I f e 'cause to burst' vi 'pus', 1V1 pus (variant of νϊ) vi 'hunger' X X The generalizations for [f] hold only for the native vocabulary; there are [fi] and [fi] syllables word-medially and word-initially in loanwords such as ofisaa 'officer', and kafin 'pagan', kafira 'a float on a fishing hook,' kofira 'hat', safia 'tin of about four gallons in size'.
We conclude with a brief overview of morphological processes. 1. Vowel harmony for the Advanced Tongue Root feature (ATR) We repeat here Table 11 from the previous chapter showing that nine vowels are phonemically differentiated for the feature +/-ATR. A tenth vowel [Λ] is the result of harmony processes affecting phonemic [a]. Table 11. Vowels in phonemic contrast, illustrated Non-back and nonNo contrast for back round and round +ATR -ATR +ATR -ATR Back and round -ATR +ATR High ά 'to distil' tl 'to give birth' tü 'to dance' tü 'to climb' Mid ti 'only' ie 'to wait' to com- to 'again' > pletion particle Advanced tongue root (henceforth ATR) harmony can be seen in three domains.